The effect of socioeconomic status on anger expression in Japan: A scrutiny using psychological entitlement
Hiromi Shimizu (Master’s Student, Graduate School of Sociology, Kwansei Gakuin University)
This study was conducted to reveal the relationships between subjective socioeconomic status (SES) and anger expression in Japan. Previous studies have documented that people with low SES express anger more often than people with high SES. These studies, however, have indicated that psychological entitlement predicts anger expression and psychological entitlement is positively correlated with SES. Therefore, there is a possibility that high SES people might tend to only express anger because of their high psychological entitlement. We hypothesized that people with a high SES tend to express anger and this effect would be mediated by psychological entitlement. In the study, 599 Japanese participants completed an online questionnaire. The questionnaire included questions about anger expression; emotional aggression, sarcasm, nonverbal expression and usual behavior. It also included a psychological entitlement scale and a subjective SES scale. The structural equation model demonstrated that people high in subjective SES tend to express anger and the effect of the expression of anger was mediated by psychological entitlement. In addition, psychological entitlement was negatively correlated with the extent of the feelings of anger. In this result, people with a high SES tended to express anger without feeling, implying that high SES people could justify expressing anger because of their psychological entitlement. Finally, the justification process of expressing anger through psychological entitlement was discussed.
anger expression, socioeconomic status, psychological entitlement